The Panjabi culture is made up of various components such as music, language, literature, film, radio, television, history, the sublime poetry of Panjabi Gurus and Pirs, shared symbols, song and dance, food, art, philosophy, science, fashion, sport, festivals, heroic legends, architecture, mythology, religion, memories, rituals, moral values, habits and manners, common ancestors, dreams and visions, shared meanings and associations.
Panjabi culture is also largely shaped by its geographical situation such as climate, seasons, landscape, flora and fauna, rivers, and mountains.
The above cultural practices and representations alter and shape our social, economic and political circumstances within society, and help maintain our sense of our identity.
Baba Farid, born in Multan in 1173 AD, was the founding father of Panjabi literature. Thus, the era of Panjabi modernity began, with the production of Baba Farid’s poetry written in the Persian script, generally known as Shahmukhi.
Baba Guru Nanak
Baba Guru Nanak, born nearly 300 years later than Baba Farid, continued the tradition of writing Panjabi poetry, also known as Bani. However Baba Nanak’s poetry went one step further by using the Panjabi script, generally known as the Gurmukhi script.
The adoption of the Panjabi people’s mother tongue, used by Baba Farid and Baba Nanak, brought about a change in the consciousness of the ordinary people of Panjab. The reading and singing of Bani helped promote literacy and understanding amongst the illiterate masses who had previously been denied access to learning and knowledge.
This practice of producing poetry in the Panjabi language was continued by the successive Poet Creators of Panjab, who became, in due course, great prophets and visionaries of the people.
|The Poet Creators of Spiritual Panjab||The Poets of Panjab|
|Baba Farid||1173 – 1265||Hashim Shah||1735 – 1821|
|Baba Guru Nanak||1469 – 1539||Shah Mohammad||1780 – 1862|
|Bhai Mardana||1459 – 1534||Khawaja Gulam Farid||1841 – 1901|
|Guru Amar Das||1479 – 1574||Bhai Vir Singh||1872 – 1957|
|Guru Angad||1504 – 1552||Dhani Ram Chartik||1875 – 1954|
|Guru Ram Das||1534 – 1581||Prof Pooran Singh||1881 – 1931|
|Baba Shah Hussain||1538 – 1599||Prof Mohan Singh||1905 – 1978|
|Bhai Gurdas (I)||1551 – 1636||Nand Lal Noorpuri||1906 – 1966|
|Guru Arjan||1563 – 1606||Ustad Daman||1913 – 2002|
|Guru Tegh Bahadur||1621 – 1675||Bibi Amrita Pritam||1919 – 2005|
|Baba Sultan Bahoo||1629 – 1690||Najam Hussain Syed||1935 –|
|Bhai Nand Lal||1633 – 1713||Shiv Kumar Batalvi||1936 – 1973|
|Baba Bulleh Shah||1680 – 1758||Sant Ram Udasi||1939 – 1986|
|Baba Waris Shah||1722 – 1798||Surjit Pattar||1945|
|Baba Mian Mohammad Bakhsh||1830 – 1907||Avtar Singh Sandhu
|1950 – 1988|
Places of Interest in the Panjab
Please note the following references material not on the Desi Radio site. Many of these detailed references can be found on Wikipedia along with detailed maps, history and cultural references.
Amritsar, a city historically known as Ramdaspur, was founded and developed by Guru Ramdas. It is home to Darbar Sahib, the spiritual and cultural centre of the Panjab.
The city, Anandpur, was founded and established by Guru Tegh Bahadur. In 1699 on Vaisakhi Day,at the national gathering on the mountain top, Guru Gobind Singh transferred the power vested in him to the Khalsa, hence laying down the foundations for a democratic, civil and republican society. From this period onwards, Panjab was no longer seen as a Kingdom but as a commonwealth of the people.
Batala is the birthplace of Mata Sulakhni, Guru Nanak’s wife. Every year celebrations are conducted on the anniversary of Guru Nanak’s marriage.
The palace of Maharaja Sher Singh is situated in Batala, and is now known as Baring Christian College.
Batala is also the hometown of 20th Century Panjabi poet, Shiv Kumar Batalvi.
Chamkaur Sahib, district Ropar
This is the site where the famous Battle of Chamkaur took place between the Khalsa led by Guru Gobind Singh and the foreign Moghul occupiers of Panjab. In this battle on 22nd December 1704, the two older sons of Guru Gobind Singh, Prince Ajit Singh and Prince Jughar Singh laid down their lives to liberate their country.
In 1675 in Chandni Chowk, Delhi, Guru Tegh Bahadur, along with his companions Bhai Matti Dass, Bhai Satti Dass and Bhai Dyala were executed by the imperial Moghul state. These four freedom fighters were waging a struggle of freedom against the Moghul occupying forces in the Panjab.
The Gurdwara in Fategarh Sahib marks the site where the two young sons of Guru Gobind Singh, Prince Zorawar Singh and Prince Fatah Singh, were executed on 27th December, 1704 by foreign, colonial rulers of Panjab.
Goindwal is a town founded and developed by Guru Amar Dass.
Gujranwala is the birthplace of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780).
Gurdas Nangal Village, Kahnuwan Gurdaspur
The famous battlefield site where in 1716 Baba Banda Singh Bahadur together with 700 of his patriots were arrested by imperial Moghul forces and taken to Delhi to be ruthlessly executed. The Chhota Ghallughara Kahnuwan Chhamb Martyrs Memorial now stands there in memory of all those who laid down their lives for the liberation of Panjab.
Hargobindpur Sahib is a town founded and developed by Guru Arjan, on the banks of the River Beas, in the district of Gurdaspur. Here, Guru Hargobind Sahib built the famous mosque, Guru Ki Maseet, in which his muslim soldiers could pray.
Jagdev Kalan village, Ajnala, district Amritsar
The birthplace of Hashim Shah, the famous bard in the Panjabi royal court of Khalsa Dabar during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Hashim Shah famously composed the love ballad, Sassi Punnun.
Birthplace of Sultan Bahu, Panjabi Sufi poet.
The King of Panjab, Porus, fought a fierce battle with Alexander the Great, on the banks of river Jhelum.
Rohtas village, District Jhelum is the birthplace of Mata Sahib Kaur, the third wife of Badshah Guru Gobind Singh and mother of the nation.
Kasur is the birthplace of Baba Bulleh Shah, a Panjabi Sufi poet (1680).
Kartarpur Sahib is a place founded and established by Baba Guru Nanak on the banks of the River Ravi. It was the first foundational centre for constituting the nascentSangat, a collective peoplehood.
Kartarpur Sahib in Jalandhar is a town founded and developed by Guru Arjan.
Guru Angad transferred the headquarters of the Sangat from Kartar pur to Khadur Sahib, in District Amritsar due to pressures exerted by Sri Chand and Lakhmi Chand, the two sons of Guru Nanak.
Lahore was the historical capital of independant Panjab, established by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. It is also the birthplace of several historical figures such as: Mata Tripta, Guru Nanak’s mother (Chahal village) Guru Ram Dass Shah Hussain, Sufi poet Sain Mian Mir, a Sufi who laid the foundation stone of Darbar Sahib in Amritsar during the time of Guru Arjun
This village in district Amritsar, is the birthplace of Dhani Ram Chatrik. He was a sufi poet and the founder of Panjabi Sabha, a literary society. He also standardise the type set for the Panjabi Gurmukhi script in which Guru Granth Sahib and Bhai Kahn Singh’s Mahan Kosh,the first Panjabi dictionary were printed.
Mirpur is the birthplace of Mian Mohammad Bakhsh, a famous Panjabi Sufi poet.
The birthplace of Baba Sheikh Farid (1173 A.D)
The birthplace of Bhai Nand Lal (1633 A.D)
Pindi Bhattian – Dulle Di Bar
The birthplace of Sardar Dulla Bhatti, the national martyr of Panjab.
Qadian, district Gurdaspur
Qadian is the spiritual centre of the Ahmadiyah Panjabis, a religious sect.
Raikot, district Ludhiana
Gurdwara Tahlianaa Sahib in Raikot is the historic site where Noora Mahi, cowherder of Chief Rai Kalha, brings Guru Gobind Singh the tragic news of the execution of his two young sons, and the death of his mother.
This district is the birthplace of Bhai Mardana (Talwandi village, 1459), Baba Guru Nanak (Talwandi village, 1469) and Baba Waris Shah (Jandiala Sher Khan village, 1722).
Sodhra village, district Sailkot
Birthplace of Bhai Ghanayia, a symbol of Panjabi Red Cross and humanitarian fellowship. He provided medical care for wounded soldiers, irrespective of whether they were friend or foe, during wars of liberation fought by Guru Gobind Singh against Moghul rulers.
Sursinghwala, district Amritsar
This is the birthplace of Bhai Abdullah (known as ‘Dullah’) and his brother, Bhai Natha, who were both the chief bards at Darbar Sahib during the rule of Guru Hargobind Sahib.
Takht Hazara is the birthplace of Ranjha, the legendary hero of the tragic story,Heer Ranjha.
Taran Taaran Sahib is a town founded and developed by Guru Arjan.